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Cicadetta montana - New Forest Cicada

Cicadetta montana - New Forest

Common in the rest of Europe this Cicada is the last of its kind in the UK.

  • Rarity: Now confined to the New Forest in Hampshire, with some concerns for its continued existence.

  • Cause of decline: Change in habitat and weather patterns. Extreme isolation of remaining populations.

Cicindela campestris - Green Tiger Beetle

Cicindela campestris - Green Tiger Beetl

A large, bright green beetle with creamy-white spots on its wing cases.

  • Rarity: Common, but potentially threatened by the decline in quality and extent of heathland.

Decticus verrucivorus - Wart-biter

Decticus verrucivorus - Wart-biter.jpg

A large dark green cricket with visible dark blotches on the upper body.

  • Rarity: In Great Britain it is extremely localised and restricted to southern England where just five populations are now known.

  • Cause of decline:The animals require a complex mixture of bare ground and long and short turf – either on chalk downland or heathland. Both these habitats, and the forms of management which produce these specific conditions have declined, along with several insects that rely on them.

Erotides cosnardi - Cosnard's Net-winged Beetle

Erotides cosnardi - Cosnard's Net-winged

A rare saproxylic beetle, found only in the Wye Gorge/Forest of Dean area and the South Downs.

  • Rarity: 3 sites in England and Wales

  • Causes of decline: Loss of large old beech trees and poor management of remaining ancient woodlands.

Hagenella clathrata - Window-winged Caddis Fly

Hagenella clathrata - Window-winged Cadd

A rare caddis fly that lives in a small number of the remaining raised bogs and heathlands in the UK.

  • Rarity: In the south of England it is only found in 2 sites.

  • Causes of decline: The drying out of their boggy habitat, the encroachment of trees into their habitat, wildfires, and the opening of tussock habitat by livestock trampling the ground.

Triplax lacordairii - Southern oyster mushroom beetle

Triplax lacordairii - Southern oyster mu

A very rare detritivorous beetle.

  • Rarity: A scattering of sites across southern England

  • Cause of decline: Loss of suitable decaying trees.

Chysolina Graminis - Tansy beetle

Chrysolina graminis.jpg

A spectacular, large and iridescent green leaf beetle, with a distinctive coppery sheen.

  • Rarity: It is restricted to a 45km stretch of riverbank centred on York, as well as two small areas in the Cambridgeshire Fens

  • Causes of decline: This species is dependent on Tansy along the River Ouse, which is becoming more scattered due to changes of land use and competition with invasive plants.

Andrena tarsata - The Tormentil Mining Bee

Andrena tarsata.jpg

A small, elusive, black solitary bee.

  • Rarity: It has been lost from over half of its habitat since the 1970s and the remaining Yorkshire and the South West strongholds remain under threat. 

  • Causes of decline: Loss of habitat, through agricultural improvement and changes in grazing management.

St Helena endemic invertebrates project - in association with the IUCN's Mid-Atlantic Islands Invertebrate Specialist Group

Spiky Yellow Woodlice Liza Fowler.PNG

St Helena is small, rugged 47 sq mile island in the Atlantic ocean, with a population of 4500, and it is a UK overseas territory. 

  • Rarity: St Helena has over 420 endemic invertebrates, this a third of the UK's unique biodiversity on one tiny island. It includes the fantastical Spiky Yellow Woodlouse (pictured), which glows in the dark. 

  • Causes of decline: St Helena invertebrates are threatened by invasive plant and invertebrate species, and the destruction and degradation of their habitats. 

Cicindela sylvatica - Heath Tiger Beetle

Cicindela sylvatica - Heath Tiger Beetle

The largest of the tiger beetles, charcoal-black in colour with pale yellow markings on the wing cases.

  • Rarity: 6 sites in the south of England

  • Causes of decline:.Loss of heathlands and the decline in quality of those that remain. Also may be limited by a poor ability to disperse.

Eurynebria complanata - Beachcomber Beetle

Eurynebria complanata - Beachcomber Beet

A large yellow ground beetle that lives on the strandline, predating sandhoppers and other small insects.

  • Rarity: Last seen on the Devon coast, it is believed to also survive in South Wales.

  • Causes of decline: Likely to result from overuse of beaches by people, and the removal of driftwood from beaches.


Asplenium septentrionale - Forked Spleenwort

Asplenium septentrionale - Forked Spleen

A rare species of fern that has experienced a rapid decline in the South of England.

  • Rarity: Known from only 2 sites in the South of England

  • Cause of decline: Overcollecting during the Victorian period, over or under shading, and the encroachment of competing vegetation.

Carex depauperata - Starved Wood-sedge

A unique sedge, both because of its rarity and the fact it has the largest fruits of any native species.

  • Rarity: 2 sites in the south of England.

  • Cause of decline: Loss of woodland management.

Cheilothela chloropus - Rabbit Moss

Cheilothela chloropus - Rabbit Moss.jpg

A rare moss which grows in short rabbit-grazed turf and exposed limestone.

  • Rarity: A handful of locations in north Devon and Somerset

  • Cause of decline: Loss of traditional management, nutrient enrichment of soils.

Dianthus armeria - Deptford Pink

Dianthus armeria - Deptford Pink.jpg

An extraordinarily vivid pink flower which grows at a range of sites in England, but feared to be one of our fastest declining species.

  • Rarity: 24 sites across England an South Wales. It is feared recently extinct in Dorset and Somerset.

  • Cause of decline: Lack of management at several of its sites has led to the loss of the open conditions it requires for survival. This has combined with a decrease in animals likely to spread the seeds to greatly endanger remaining populations.

Gentianella campestris - Field Gentian

Gentianella campestris - Field Gentian.j

A small yet striking gentian, showing one of the fastest declines of any native wildflower.

  • Rarity: Ten sites in southern England (three of which are on The Lizard in Cornwall, and four in Hampshire’s New Forest), as well as a handful of sites in Wales.

  • Cause of decline: Their decline can roughly be associated with the decline of semi-natural grasslands, due to changes in agriculture. It cannot survive in ungrazed grassland.

Lobelia urens - Heath Lobelia

Lobelia urens Heath Lobelia.jpg

One of our few native Lobelias, a blaze of purple found in acidic bogs.

  • Rarity: 6 sites across the south of England from Cornwall to Sussex.

  • Cause of decline: Loss of heathlands and deterioration in the biodiversity of bog habitats.

Lolium temulentum - Darnel

Lolium temulentum - Darnel.jpg

Once a common arable plant, Darnel experienced a severe decline at the beginning of the 20th Century.

  • Rarity: Few, if any, stable locations

  • Cause of decline: Changing agricultural practices

Lycopodiella inundata- Marsh Clubmoss

Lycopodiella inundata - Marsh Clubmoss2.

This living fossil is in fact a type of fern,belonging to a strange relict family of plants which dominated the earth millions of years ago.

  • Rarity: It occurs on just under 70 heathland sites across England, but at many of these exists at perilously low numbers.

  • Cause of decline: Loss of heathland overall, but also a decline in the specific type of habitat, wet heathland with periodically disturbed soils, on which it relies.

Melampyrum arvense - Field Cow-wheat

Melampyrum arvense - Field Cow-wheat.JPG

A hemi-parasitic member of the Figwort family, occuring in open tussocky grasslands in field boundaries. It used to grow in abundance in crops, and was known as a 'poverty weed' due to its seeds reducing the market value of corn. It has now completely vanished from arable habitats and survives in a handful of sites where open soil conditions are managed for.

  • Rarity: 4 sites, in the south of England.

  • Cause of decline: Agricultural intensification.

Phyteuma spicatum - Spiked Rampion

Phyteuma spicatum - Spiked Rampion.jpg

Sometimes referred to as the Rapunzel flower, a bellflower with a host of therapeutic properties, once used by monks.

  • Rarity: 8 sites, all in East Sussex.

  • Cause of decline: Loss of woodland management.

Polygala amarella - Dwarf Milkwort

Polygala amarella-Kentish Milkwort.jpg

The rarest member of the Milkworts, a perennial which grows on chalky grassland and limestone pastures.

  • Rarity:Roughly 11 sites, clustered on the Kent Downs and Lancashire fells.

  • Cause of decline: Loss of traditionally grazed pastures.