Heteropteran bugs

Seven species of heteropteran bug have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, six of which are shown below. Heteropteran bugs are threatened by habitat loss.

Species: Chlorochroa juniperina
Extinct: 1925
Factors leading to extinction: Decline of juniper, its host.

Elasmucha ferrugata.jpg

Species: Elasmucha ferrugata
Extinct: 1950

© Erland Refling Nielsen

© Arto Muinonen

Species: Eurygaster austriaca
Extinct: 1885

Hadrodemus m-flavum.jpg

© Isidro Martínez

Species: Hadrodemus

Extinct: 1800s

© Isidro Martínez

Species: Jalla dumosa
Extinct: 1800s

Prostemma guttula.jpg

© Boris Loboda

Species: Prostemma guttula
Extinct: 1890

© Ondřej Zicha


13 species of lichen have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, six of which are shown below. Lichens are threatened by habitat loss and human disturbance.

Species: Arthothelium spectabile
Extinct: 1937

Biatora cuprea.jpg

Species: Biatora cuprea
Extinct: 1975

© Ed Uebel

© Einar Timdal

Species: Brigantiaea fuscolutea
Extinct: 1960

Bryoria nadvornikiana.jpg

Species: Bryoria nadvornikiana
Extinct: 1995
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution

© Einar Timdal

© Ed Uebel

Species: Chaenothecopsis debilis
Extinct: 1846

Cladonia peziziformis.jpg

© Helge Gundersen

© William Tanneberger

Species: Cladonia peziziformis
Extinct: 1968
Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance, inappropriate use of burning for land management, the natural succession of heathland vegetation and high grazing levels.


Four species of liverwort have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, one of which is shown below. Liverworts are threatened by habitat loss and modification.

Species: Diplophyllum taxifolium
Extinct: 1950s

© Hermann Schachner


Three species of mammal have become extinct in England in the last 200 years.

Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern right whale)
Extinct: mid 1800s
Factors leading to extinction: A decline in its food source

© Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission/NOAA Fisheries Research Permit

Species: Felis silvestris (Wildcat)
Extinct: late 1800s (currently at brink of extinction in Scotland)
Factors leading to extinction: Hunting and habitat loss

© Paul Lathbury

Myotis myotis (Greater mouse-eared bat).

Species: Myotis myotis (Greater mouse-eared bat)
Extinct: 1985
Factors leading to extinction: Unknown, although there are no records of this species until the 1950s so it could have been a failed colonisation

© Margarida Augusto


Two species of mayfly have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, one of which is shown below. Mayflies are threatened by pollution and habitat change.

Species: Arthroplea congener
Extinct: 1920
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution

© Urmas Kruus


30 species of moss have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 18 of which are shown below. Mosses are threatened by habitat loss and modification.

© Dick Haaksma

Species: Aulacomnium turgidum (Swollen thread-moss)
Extinct: 1878
Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance including livestock grazing

Species: Bartramia stricta (Upright apple-moss)
Extinct: 1864
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss, scrub encroachment and collecting

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Species: Bryum calophyllum (Matted bryum)
Extinct: 1983
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and poor land management

Species: Bryum turbinatum
Extinct: 1940s
Factors leading to extinction: 
Habitat loss as a result of coastal development

© Dick Haaksma

© Kristian Peters

Species: Conostomum tetragonum (Helmet-moss)
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution

Species: Cynodontium polycarpum
Extinct: 1960s

© Dick Haaksma

© Kristian Peters

Species: Dicranum elongatum (Dense fork-moss)
Extinct: late 1800s

Species: Gyroweisia reflexa
Extinct: 1938
Factors leading to extinction: Development

© Jan-Peter Frahm

©  Jan-Peter Frahm

Species: Helodium blandowii
Extinct: 1901
Factors leading to extinction: Land drainage

Species: Herzogiella striatella (Muhlenbeck’s feather-moss)
Extinct: 1950s

© Michael Lueth

© Jan-Peter Frahm

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Species: Kiaeria falcata (Sickle-leaved fork-moss)
Extinct: 1950s

Species: Paludella squarrosa
Extinct: 1916
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat destroyed by humans

© Jan-Peter Frahm

© Michael Lueth

Species: Philonotis tomentella
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and pollution

Species: Pohlia proligera
Extinct: 1950s

© Michael Lueth

© Dick Haaksma

Species: Pterygoneurum lamellatum
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and scrub encroachment

Species: Sphagnum obtusum
Extinct: 1911
Factors leading to extinction: Bog drainage

© Dick Haaksma

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Species: Sphagnum strictum (Pale bog-moss)
Extinct: 1950s

Species: Tetrodontium repandum (Small four-tooth moss)
Extinct: 1958

© Michael Lueth


62 species of moth have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 25 of which are shown below. Moths are threatened by habitat loss and degradation.

Species: Arctornis l-nigrum (Black V moth)
Extinct: 1960

Borkhausenia minutella.jpg

Species: Borkhausenia minutella
Extinct: 1931

© Graham Wenman

© Graham Wenman

Species: Colobochyla salicalis (Lesser belle)
Extinct: 1977
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat degradation

Costaconvexa polygrammata (The many line

Species: Costaconvexa polygrammata (The many lined)
Extinct: 1850s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss

© Graham Wenman

© Nick Montegriffo

Species: Cucullia naphalii (The cudweed)
Extinct: 1979

Depressaria depressana.jpg

Species: Depressaria depressana
Extinct: pre-1900
Factors leading to extinction: Could be related to climatic changes

© Graham Wenman

© Graham Wenman

Species: Dichomeris derasella
Extinct: 1933

Emmelia trabealis (Spotted sulphur).jpg

Species: Emmelia trabealis (Spotted sulphur)
Extinct: 1960
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and agricultural intensification

© Natalija Pisec

© Graham Wenman

Species: Epicallima formosella
Extinct: 1840s

© Graham Wenman

Species: Hyboma strigosa (Marsh dagger)
Extinct: 1933

© Graham Wenman

Species: Hypercallia citrinalis
Extinct: 1979
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss

© Kevin Hannan

© Mª Africa

Species: Jodia croceago (Orange upperwing)
Extinct: 1983
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and degradation

Species: Leucodonta bicoloria (White prominent)
Extinct: 1880

© yyzz2@Hokkaido_Japan

Species: Lithophane furcifera (The Conformist)
Extinct: 1907

© Graham Wenman

Species: Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth)
Extinct: 1907
Factors leading to extinction: This species is regarded as a pest to trees and shrubs and was therefore purposefully eradicated.

Species: Lyonetia prunifoliella
Extinct: 1900

© Ian Kimber

© Henk Wallays

Species: Minucia lunaris (Lunar double-stripe)
Extinct: 1958

© Carol Strafford

© yyzz2@Hokkaido_Japan

Species: Nola aerugula (Scarce black arches)
Extinct: 1890

Species: Nothris verbascella
Extinct: 1971
Factors leading to extinction: The larva of this moth feed on hoary mullein. This plant is now very rare and this probably contributed to the moth's decline.

Species: Oxyptilus pilosellae
Extinct: 1964

© Graham Wenman

© Andrzej Staśkowiak

Species: Pachetra sagittigera (Feathered ear)
Extinct: 1963
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss

Species: Paranthrene tabaniformis (Dusky clearwing)
Extinct: 1924

© Ferran Turmo Gort

© Graham Wenman

Species: Pyrausta sanguinalis (Scarce crimson and gold)
Extinct: 1935
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and damage

Species: Scopula immorata (Lewes wave)
Extinct: 1958
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat change

© Isidro Martínez

© Lothar Monshausen

Species: Trachea atriplicis (Orache)
Extinct: 1905
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage of fens

© Anne Sorbes