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Heteropteran bugs

Seven species of heteropteran bug have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, six of which are shown below. Heteropteran bugs are threatened by habitat loss.

Chlorochroa juniperina.jpg

Species: Chlorochroa juniperina
Extinct: 1925
Factors leading to extinction: Decline of juniper, its host.

Elasmucha ferrugata.jpg

Species: Elasmucha ferrugata
Extinct: 1950

© Erland Refling Nielsen

© Arto Muinonen

Eurygaster austriaca.jpg

Species: Eurygaster austriaca
Extinct: 1885

Hadrodemus m-flavum.jpg

© Isidro Martínez

Species: Hadrodemus

Extinct: 1800s

© Isidro Martínez

Jalla dumosa.jpg

Species: Jalla dumosa
Extinct: 1800s

Prostemma guttula.jpg

© Boris Loboda

Species: Prostemma guttula
Extinct: 1890

© Ondřej Zicha


13 species of lichen have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, six of which are shown below. Lichens are threatened by habitat loss and human disturbance.

Arthothelium spectabile.jpg

Species: Arthothelium spectabile
Extinct: 1937

Biatora cuprea.jpg

Species: Biatora cuprea
Extinct: 1975

© Ed Uebel

© Einar Timdal

Brigantiaea fuscolutea.jpg

Species: Brigantiaea fuscolutea
Extinct: 1960

Bryoria nadvornikiana.jpg

Species: Bryoria nadvornikiana
Extinct: 1995
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution

© Einar Timdal

© Ed Uebel

Chaenothecopsis debilis.jpg

Species: Chaenothecopsis debilis
Extinct: 1846

Cladonia peziziformis.jpg

© Helge Gundersen

© William Tanneberger

Species: Cladonia peziziformis
Extinct: 1968
Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance, inappropriate use of burning for land management, the natural succession of heathland vegetation and high grazing levels.


Four species of liverwort have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, one of which is shown below. Liverworts are threatened by habitat loss and modification.

Diplophyllum taxifolium.JPG

Species: Diplophyllum taxifolium
Extinct: 1950s

© Hermann Schachner


Three species of mammal have become extinct in England in the last 200 years.

Eubalaena glacialis (Northern right whal

Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern right whale)
Extinct: mid 1800s
Factors leading to extinction: A decline in its food source

© Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission/NOAA Fisheries Research Permit

Felis silvestris (Wildcat).jpg

Species: Felis silvestris (Wildcat)
Extinct: late 1800s (currently at brink of extinction in Scotland)
Factors leading to extinction: Hunting and habitat loss

© Paul Lathbury

Myotis myotis (Greater mouse-eared bat).

Species: Myotis myotis (Greater mouse-eared bat)
Extinct: 1985
Factors leading to extinction: Unknown, although there are no records of this species until the 1950s so it could have been a failed colonisation

© Margarida Augusto


Two species of mayfly have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, one of which is shown below. Mayflies are threatened by pollution and habitat change.

Arthroplea congener.jpg

Species: Arthroplea congener
Extinct: 1920
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution

© Urmas Kruus


30 species of moss have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 18 of which are shown below. Mosses are threatened by habitat loss and modification.

Aulacomnium turgidum (Swollen thread-mos

© Dick Haaksma

Species: Aulacomnium turgidum (Swollen thread-moss)
Extinct: 1878
Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance including livestock grazing

Bartramia stricta (Upright apple-moss).j

Species: Bartramia stricta (Upright apple-moss)
Extinct: 1864
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss, scrub encroachment and collecting

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Bryum calophyllum (Matted bryum).jpg

Species: Bryum calophyllum (Matted bryum)
Extinct: 1983
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and poor land management

Bryum turbinatum.jpg

Species: Bryum turbinatum
Extinct: 1940s
Factors leading to extinction: 
Habitat loss as a result of coastal development

© Dick Haaksma

© Kristian Peters

Conostomum tetragonum (Helmet-moss).jpg

Species: Conostomum tetragonum (Helmet-moss)
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution

Cynodontium polycarpum.jpg

Species: Cynodontium polycarpum
Extinct: 1960s

© Dick Haaksma

© Kristian Peters

Dicranum elongatum (Dense fork-moss).jpg

Species: Dicranum elongatum (Dense fork-moss)
Extinct: late 1800s

Gyroweisia reflexa.jpg

Species: Gyroweisia reflexa
Extinct: 1938
Factors leading to extinction: Development

© Jan-Peter Frahm

©  Jan-Peter Frahm

Helodium blandowii.jpg

Species: Helodium blandowii
Extinct: 1901
Factors leading to extinction: Land drainage


Species: Herzogiella striatella (Muhlenbeck’s feather-moss)
Extinct: 1950s

© Michael Lueth

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Kiaeria falcata (Sickle-leaved fork-moss

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Species: Kiaeria falcata (Sickle-leaved fork-moss)
Extinct: 1950s

Paludella squarrosa.jpg

Species: Paludella squarrosa
Extinct: 1916
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat destroyed by humans

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Philonotis tomentella.jpg

© Michael Lueth

Species: Philonotis tomentella
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and pollution

Pohlia proligera.jpg

Species: Pohlia proligera
Extinct: 1950s

© Michael Lueth

Pterygoneurum lamellatum.jpg

© Dick Haaksma

Species: Pterygoneurum lamellatum
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and scrub encroachment

Sphagnum obtusum.jpg

Species: Sphagnum obtusum
Extinct: 1911
Factors leading to extinction: Bog drainage

© Dick Haaksma

Sphagnum strictum (Pale bog-moss).jpg

© Jan-Peter Frahm

Species: Sphagnum strictum (Pale bog-moss)
Extinct: 1950s

Tetrodontium repandum (Small four-tooth

Species: Tetrodontium repandum (Small four-tooth moss)
Extinct: 1958

© Michael Lueth


62 species of moth have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 25 of which are shown below. Moths are threatened by habitat loss and degradation.

Arctornis l-nigrum (Black V moth).jpg

Species: Arctornis l-nigrum (Black V moth)
Extinct: 1960

Borkhausenia minutella.jpg

Species: Borkhausenia minutella
Extinct: 1931

© Graham Wenman

© Graham Wenman

Colobochyla salicalis (Lesser belle).jpg

Species: Colobochyla salicalis (Lesser belle)
Extinct: 1977
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat degradation

Costaconvexa polygrammata (The many line

Species: Costaconvexa polygrammata (The many lined)
Extinct: 1850s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss

© Graham Wenman

© Nick Montegriffo

Cucullia naphalii (The cudweed).jpg

Species: Cucullia naphalii (The cudweed)
Extinct: 1979

Depressaria depressana.jpg

Species: Depressaria depressana
Extinct: pre-1900
Factors leading to extinction: Could be related to climatic changes

© Graham Wenman

© Graham Wenman

Dichomeris derasella.jpg

Species: Dichomeris derasella
Extinct: 1933

Emmelia trabealis (Spotted sulphur).jpg

Species: Emmelia trabealis (Spotted sulphur)
Extinct: 1960
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and agricultural intensification

© Natalija Pisec

© Graham Wenman

Epicallima formosella.jpg

Species: Epicallima formosella
Extinct: 1840s

© Graham Wenman

Hyboma strigosa (Marsh dagger).jpg

Species: Hyboma strigosa (Marsh dagger)
Extinct: 1933

© Graham Wenman

Hypercallia citrinalis.jpg

Species: Hypercallia citrinalis
Extinct: 1979
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss

© Kevin Hannan

Jodia croceago (Orange upperwing).jpg

© Mª Africa

Species: Jodia croceago (Orange upperwing)
Extinct: 1983
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and degradation

Leucodonta bicoloria (White prominent).j

Species: Leucodonta bicoloria (White prominent)
Extinct: 1880

© yyzz2@Hokkaido_Japan

Lithophane furcifera (The Conformist).jp

Species: Lithophane furcifera (The Conformist)
Extinct: 1907

© Graham Wenman

Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth).jpg

Species: Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth)
Extinct: 1907
Factors leading to extinction: This species is regarded as a pest to trees and shrubs and was therefore purposefully eradicated.

Lyonetia prunifoliella.jpg

Species: Lyonetia prunifoliella
Extinct: 1900

© Ian Kimber

© Henk Wallays

Minucia lunaris (Lunar double-stripe).jp

Species: Minucia lunaris (Lunar double-stripe)
Extinct: 1958

© Carol Strafford

Nola aerugula (Scarce black arches).jpg

© yyzz2@Hokkaido_Japan

Species: Nola aerugula (Scarce black arches)
Extinct: 1890

Nothris verbascella.jpg

Species: Nothris verbascella
Extinct: 1971
Factors leading to extinction: The larva of this moth feed on hoary mullein. This plant is now very rare and this probably contributed to the moth's decline.

Oxyptilus pilosellae.jpg

Species: Oxyptilus pilosellae
Extinct: 1964

© Graham Wenman

© Andrzej Staśkowiak

Pachetra sagittigera (Feathered ear).jpg

Species: Pachetra sagittigera (Feathered ear)
Extinct: 1963
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss

Paranthrene tabaniformis (Dusky clearwin

Species: Paranthrene tabaniformis (Dusky clearwing)
Extinct: 1924

© Ferran Turmo Gort

© Graham Wenman

Pyrausta sanguinalis (Scarce crimson and

Species: Pyrausta sanguinalis (Scarce crimson and gold)
Extinct: 1935
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and damage

Scopula immorata (Lewes wave).jpg

Species: Scopula immorata (Lewes wave)
Extinct: 1958
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat change

© Isidro Martínez

© Lothar Monshausen

Trachea atriplicis (Orache).jpg

Species: Trachea atriplicis (Orache)
Extinct: 1905
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage of fens

© Anne Sorbes

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