Vascular plants

24 species of vascular plant have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 18 of which are shown below. Vascular plants are threatened by habitat loss and destruction, drainage, the use of fertilisers and herbicides, eutrophication, overgrazing and overcollecting.

Ajuga genevensis (Blue bugle).jpg

Species: Ajuga genevensis (Blue bugle)
Extinct: 1967

© Dave Riseborough

Arnoseris minima (Lamb's succory).jpg

Species: Arnoseris minima (Lamb's succory)
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Increased use of fertilisers and herbicides

© A.S. Kers

Bromus interruptus (Interrupted brome).j

Species: Bromus interruptus (Interrupted brome)
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Modern agricultural techniques

© Plantsurfer


Species: Carex davalliana (Davall’s sedge)
Extinct: 1831
Factors leading to extinction: This species was found at only one site which was drained and developed

© Serge Aubert

Carex trinervis (Three-nerved sedge).jpg

Species: Carex trinervis (Three-nerved sedge)
Extinct: 1869

© A.S. Kers

Caucalis platycarpos (Small bur parsley)

Species: Caucalis platycarpos (Small bur parsley)
Factors leading to extinction: Modern agricultural techniques

© Svein Erik Larsen

Centaurium scilloides (Perennial centaur

Species: Centaurium scilloides (Perennial centaury)
Extinct: c1967
Factors leading to extinction: A reduction in grazing and the growth of scrub

© Peter Greenwood

Cystopteris alpina (Alpine bladder-fern)

Species: Cystopteris alpina (Alpine bladder-fern)
Extinct: 1911

© Hermann Schachner

Cystopteris Montana (Mountain bladder-fe

Species: Cystopteris montana (Mountain bladder-fern)
Extinct: 1880
Factors leading to extinction: Grazing and overcollecting

© Peter Greenwood

Euphorbia peplis (Purple spurge).jpg

Species: Euphorbia peplis (Purple spurge)
Extinct: 1951
Factors leading to extinction: Winter storm damage

© Sarah Gregg

Euphorbia villosa (Hairy spurge).jpg

Species: Euphorbia villosa (Hairy spurge)
Extinct: 1924

Najas flexilis (Slender naiad).jpg

Species: Najas flexilis (Slender naiad)
Extinct: 1982
Factors leading to extinction: Eutrophication

© Per Aasen

© Stefan Lefnaer

Otanthus maritimus (Cottonweed).jpg

© Sarah Gregg

Species: Otanthus maritimus (Cottonweed)
Extinct: 1936


© Per Aasen

Species: Polygonatum verticillatum (Whorled Solomon’s–seal)
Extinct: 1866
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat destruction and erosion

Saxifraga rosacea (Irish saxifrage).jpg

© Katsuji Ohkouchi

Species: Saxifraga rosacea (Irish saxifrage)
Extinct: 1960
Factors leading to extinction:

Overgrazing and pollution

Scheuchzeria palustris (Rannoch rush).jp

Species: Scheuchzeria palustris (Rannoch rush)
Extinct: c1900
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage and eutrophication

© Corey Raimond


Species: Spiranthes aestivalis (Summer lady’s-tresses)
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage and over collecting


Species: Spiranthes romanzoffiana (Irish lady’s-tresses)
Extinct: 1990s
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage and reclamation

© Per Verdonk

© Emilio Esteban-Infantes


Ten species of wasp have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, nine of which are shown below.

Arachnospila rufa.jpg

© Stefan Schmidt

Species: Arachnospila rufa
Extinct: 1938

Dinetus pictus.jpg

Species: Dinetus pictus
Extinct: 1880

© Stefan Schmidt

Hedychrum rutilans.jpg

Species: Hedychrum rutilans
Extinct: 1899

Lestica clypeata.jpg

Species: Lestica clypeata
Extinct: 1853

© Stefan Schmidt

© Stefan Schmidt

Mellinus crabroneus.jpg

Species: Mellinus crabroneus
Extinct: 1952

Odynerus reniformis.jpg

Species: Odynerus reniformis
Extinct: 1922

© Stefan Schmidt

© Stefan Schmidt

Priocnemis propinqua.jpg

Species: Priocnemis propinqua
Extinct: 1899

Psen ater.jpg

Species: Psen ater
Extinct: 1850

© Stefan Schmidt

© Stefan Schmidt

Tachysphex obscuripennis.jpg

Species: Tachysphex obscuripennis
Extinct: 1882

© Stefan Schmidt