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Lost Life Project

The world is currently experiencing the sixth mass extinction event, caused largely by human activities that continue to damage and destroy biodiversity across the globe. High extinction rates are typically associated with the most biodiverse regions such as the tropical rainforests, however, it is vital that we do not forget about the species that live closer to home. Over the past 200 years, over 400 species have been lost from England alone. This incredible loss of biodiversity has been caused by a range of factors, such as habitat degradation and modification, the intensification of agriculture, pollution and poor land management. The Lost Life Project aims to raise awareness about this issue. There are still many species in England that are edging closer and closer to extinction every year. We believe that by both raising awareness about the tragic extinctions thay have already occurred and focussing our work on the very rarest species in the UK, we can prevent further losses from occurring.

 

Over the last 200 years, 413 species have become extinct in England (based on previous data produced by Natural England, Biodiversity Challenge and the IUCN). These include species of ants, bees, beetles, birds, butterflies, caddisflies, cnidarians, dragonflies, earwigs, fish, fleas, flies, fungi, heteropteran bugs, lichens, liverworts, mammals, mayflies, mosses, moths, sawflies, shrimps, snails, spiders, stoneflies, stoneworts, true bugs, vascular plants and wasps. Some of these species are shown below, with information on the year and specific causes of extinction where known, while the full list is available here. One of the primary aims of the Species Recovery Trust is to prevent this list from getting any longer, and with your help we can make this happen.

The Lost Species

Ants: One species of ant has become extinct in England in the last 200 years.
Formica pratensis
©Andrea Hallgass
Species: Formica pratensis (black-backed
meadow ant)
Extinct: 1988
Factors leading to extinction: Urban
development and inappropriate land
management
 
Bees: 22 species of bee have become extinct In England in the last 200 years, 18 of which are shown below. Bees are threatened by habitat loss, the use of pesticides, disease and invasive bee species.
Andrena lepida
©Pietro Niolu
Species: Andrena lepida
Extinct: 1952
Factors leading to extinction: Agricultural changes
Andrena nana
©Stefan Schmidt
Species: Andrena nana
Extinct: 1930
Andrena nanula
©Stefan Schmidt
Species: Andrena nanula
Extinct: 1877
Andrena vaga
© Henk Wallays
Species: Andrena vaga
Extinct: 1946
Bombus distinguendus
©Stefan Schmidt
Species: Bombus distinguendus (great yellow bumblebee)
Extinct: 1981
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss
Bombus subterraneanus
©Göran Holmström
Species: Bombus subterraneus (short-haired bumblebee)
Extinct: 1990
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss/degradation and agricultural changes
Coelioxys afra
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Coelioxys afra
Extinct: 1892
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and changes to agricultural methods
Dufourea halictula
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Dufourea halictula
Extinct: 1953
Eucera nigrescens
© R. Proffit
Species: Eucera nigrescens
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Agricultural changes and a decline in some of its food plants
Halictus maculates
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Halictus maculates
Extinct: 1930
Halictus subauratus
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Halictus subauratus
Extinct: 1850s
Hylaeus punctulatissima
© Stefan Schmidt

Species: Hylaeus punctulatissima
Extinct: 1840
Megachile ericetorum
© Christine le Fur
Species: Megachile ericetorum
Extinct: 1844
Megachile lapponica
© Henk Wallays
Species: Megachile lapponica
Extinct: 1847
Melecta luctuosa
© Sandrine Meddour
Species: Melecta luctuosa
Extinct: 1912
Factors leading to extinction: Decline of its host species
Nomada errans
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Nomada errans
Extinct: 1982
Factors leading to extinction: Cliff stabilisation and scrub encroachment
Osmia xanthomelana
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Osmia xanthomelana
Extinct: 1998
Factors leading to extinction: Cliff stabilisation, scrub encroachment and agricultural intensification
Rhophites quinquespinosus © Stefan Schmidt Species: Rhophites quinquespinosus
Extinct: 1878
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Beetles: 78 species of beetle have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 55 of which are shown below. Beetles are threatened by habitat loss, pollution, the intensification and expansion of agriculture and the spread of cities.
Acupalpus elegans
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Acupalpus elegans
Extinct: 1875
Aglyptinus agathidioides
© Natural History Museum
Species: Aglyptinus agathidioides
Extinct: 1912
Ampedus sanguineus
© Henk Wallays
Species: Ampedus sanguineus
Extinct: 1830
Anthrenus pimpinellae
© Henk Wallays
Species: Anthrenus pimpinellae
Extinct: 1895
Anthrenus scrophulariae
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Anthrenus scrophulariae
Extinct: 1800s
Bagous arduus (longitarsis)
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Bagous arduus (longitarsis)
Extinct: 1800s
Factors leading to extinction: Water pollution
Bagous binodulus
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Bagous binodulus
Extinct: 1861
Factors leading to extinction: Water pollution
Bagous petro
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Bagous petro
Extinct: 1895
Bidessus minutissimus
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Bidessus minutissimus (Minutest diving beetle)
Extinct: 1908
Factors leading to extinction: Water pollution and poor river management
Bostrichus capucinus
© Costan E
Species: Bostrichus capucinus
Extinct: 1908
Bothynoderes (Chromoderus) afinis
© Filip Trnka
Species: Bothynoderes (Chromoderus) afinis
Extinct: 1883
Cardiophorus gramineus
© Eran Finkle
Species: Cardiophorus gramineus
Extinct: 1863
Factors leading to extinction: Poor management
Cardiophorus ruficollis
© Josef Němec
Species: Cardiophorus ruficollis
Extinct: 1833
Ceutorhynchus syrites
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Ceutorhynchus syrites
Extinct: 1800s
Chrysomela tremula
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Chrysomela tremula
Extinct: 1958
Factors leading to extinction: Decline in coppicing
Clytra laeviuscula
© Cristian Arghius
Species: Clytra laeviuscula
Extinct: 1895
Coniocleonus hollbergi
© Michael Schäfer
Species: Coniocleonus hollbergi
Extinct: 1815
Endophloeus markovichianus
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Endophloeus markovichianus
Extinct: 1927
Gyrinus natator
© Mick Talbot
Species: Gyrinus natator
Extinct: 1921
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat succession
Hister illigeri
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Hister illigeri
Extinct: 1800s
Hypera arundinis
© Vitaliy Nazarenko
Species: Hypera arundinis
Extinct: 1800s
Hypocassida subferruginea
© Renato Nicolai
Species: Hypocassida subferruginea
Extinct: 1800s
Lamia textor
© Maria Justamond
Species: Lamia textor
Extinct: 1953
Lamprohiza splendidula
© Udo Schmidt
Species: Lamprohiza splendidula
Extinct: 1884
Factors leading to extinction: Land use and agricultural changes
Lebia marginata
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Lebia marginata
Extinct: 1800s
Lebia scapularis
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Lebia scapularis
Extinct: 1883
Lepturobosca virens
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Lepturobosca virens
Extinct: 1800s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and land use changes
Lepyrus capucinus
© Ruth Zwiener
Species: Lepyrus capucinus
Extinct: 1897
Lixus angustatus nec algirus
© Pietro Niolu
Species: Lixus angustatus nec algirus
Extinct: 1928
Lixus paraplecticus
© Juergen Mangelsdorf
Species: Lixus paraplecticus
Extinct: 1958
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and modification
Lixus vilis
© Josef Dvořák
Species: Lixus vilis
Extinct: 1905
Meligethes coracinus
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Meligethes coracinus
Extinct: 1870s
Meloe autumnalis
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Meloe autumnalis
Extinct: 1952
Factors leading to extinction: Changes in land management
Meloe cicatricosus
© Victor Hristov
Species: Meloe cicatricosus
Extinct: 1906
Factors leading to extinction: Changes in land management
Meloe mediterraneus
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Meloe mediterraneus
Extinct: 1800s
Factors leading to extinction: Changes in land management
Meloe variegatus
© Stanislav Shinkarenko
Species: Meloe variegatus
Extinct: 1882
Factors leading to extinction: Changes in land management
Murmidius ovalis
© Michael Thomas
Species: Murmidius ovalis
Extinct: 1831
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and land use changes
Mycterus curculioides
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Mycterus curculioides
Extinct: 1882
Obrium cantharinum
© Henk Wallays
Species: Obrium cantharinum
Extinct: 1929
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and land use changes
Paederus rubrothoracicus
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Paederidus rubrothoracicus
Extinct: 1870
Philonthus confinis
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Philonthus confinis
Extinct: 1902
Phloeophagus gracilis
© Friedhelm Bahr
Species: Phloeophagus gracilis
Extinct: 1897
Factors leading to extinction: Land use changes
Plagionotus arcuatus
© Stanislav Shinkarenko
Species: Plagionotus arcuatus
Extinct:
1800s
Platycerus caraboides
© Stanislav Shinkarenko
Species: Platycerus caraboides (Blue stag beetle)
Extinct: 1839
Pleurophorus caesus
© Lech Borowiec

Species: Pleurophorus caesus
Extinct: 1890
Polyphylla fullo
© Jaroslaw Makowski
Species: Polyphylla fullo
Extinct: mid-1800s
Pterostichus aterrimus
© Roy Anderson
Species:Pterostichus aterrimus
Extinct: 1973
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and degradation
Rhynchites bacchus
© Juraj Komar
Species: Rhynchites bacchus
Extinct: 1843
Rhyssemus germanus
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Rhyssemus germanus
Extinct: 1800s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and poor management
Spercheus emarginatus
© Udo Schmidt
Species: Spercheus emarginatus
Extinct: 1956
Factors leading to extinction: Loss of fenland habitat
Strangalia attenuata
© Stanislav Shinkarenko
Species: Strangalia attenuata
Extinct: 1845
Tilloidea unifasciatus
© Siga
Species: Tilloidea unifasciatus
Extinct: 1877
Trichodes alvearius
© Jane Aston
Species: Trichodes alvearius
Extinct: 1800s
Trichodes apiarius
© Walwyn - professor-moriarty.com
Species: Trichodes apiarius
Extinct: 1830
Tychius polylineatus
© Lech Borowiec
Species: Tychius polylineatus
Extinct: 1909
   
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Birds: Seven species of bird have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, six of which are shown below. Birds are threatened by habitat loss, human disturbance, agriculture and hunting.
Charadrius alexandrines
© Francis Yap
Species: Charadrius alexandrines (Kentish plover)
Extinct: 1928
Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance
Chlidonias niger
© Andrew Jordan
Species: Chlidonias niger (Black tern)
Extinct: 1840s-1850s
Factors leading to extinction: Loss of wetlands
Ciconia ciconia
© Trisha Shears
Species: Ciconia ciconia (White stork)
Extinct: Unknown
Factors leading to extinction: There is no clear
understanding of why this bird failed to survive
in the UK.
Crex crex
© Ingeborg van Leeuwen
Species: Crex crex (Corncrake)
Extinct: Early 1990s
Factors leading to extinction: The mechanisation of mowing and the earlier mowing of grass crops

Lanius collurio
© Roberto Zappaterra

Species: Lanius collurio (Red-backed shrike)
Extinct: 1988
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss, agricultural intensification and egg collecting
Otis tarda
© Henrique Oliveira Pires
Species: Otis tarda (Great bustard)
Extinct: 1833
Factors leading to extinction: Expansion and intensification of agriculture
Pinguinus impennis
© John Gerrard Keulemans
Species: Pinguinus impennis (Great auk)
Extinct: 1820s
Factors leading to extinction: Hunting
   
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Butterflies: Five species of butterfly have become extinct in England in the last 200 years. Butterflies are threatened by the intensification and mechanisation of agriculture, changes in land management, and the use of both pesticides and herbicides.
Aporia crataegi
© Henk Wallays
Species: Aporia crataegi (Black-veined white)
Extinct: 1890s-1920s
Factors leading to extinction: Numbers crashed during a prolonged wet period
Carterocephalus palaemon
© Alexander Henderson
Species: Carterocephalus palaemon (Chequered skipper)
Extinct: 1976
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and neglect
Cyaniris semiargus (Mazarine blue)
© Gilles San Martin
Species: Cyaniris semiargus (Mazarine blue)
Extinct: 1903
Factors leading to extinction: Changes in agricultural practices
 
Lycaena dispar
© Andrzej Staśkowiak
Species: Lycaena dispar (Large copper)
Extinct: 1864
Factors leading to extinction: The draining of the fens where it used to breed
Nymphalis polychloros
© Lothar Monshausen
Species: Nymphalis polychloros (Large tortoiseshell)
Extinct: c1953
Factors leading to extinction: Dutch elm disease eradicated main larval food source
   
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Cnidarians: One species of cnidarian has become extinct in England in the last 200 years. This species was only ever found in England and so it is now globally extinct.
Edwardsia ivelli
© Richard Ivell
Species: Edwardsia ivelli (Ivell's Sea Anemone)
Extinct: 1983
Factors leading to extinction: Changes in water quality
   
Dragonflies: Three species of dragonfly have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, two of which are shown below. Dragonflies are threatened by habitat loss and flooding.
Coenagrion scitulum
© John Reinecke
Species: Coenagrion scitulum (Dainty damselfly)
Extinct: 1953
Factors leading to extinction: Flooding destroyed breeding sites
Coenagrion armatum
© Martijn Versluijs
Species: Coenagrion armatum (Norfolk damselfly)
Extinct: 1958
Oxygastra curtisii
© Juan Antonio
Species: Oxygastra curtisii (Orange-spotted emerald)
Extinct: 1963
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution
   
Earwigs: One species of earwig has become extinct in England in the last 200 years. Earwigs are threatened by habitat loss and predation.
Labidura riparia
© Matthieu Aubert
Species: Labidura riparia (Tawny earwig)
Extinct: c1930
   
Fish: One species of fish has become extinct in England in the last 200 years.
Lota lota
© Alain Dillen
Species: Lota lota (Burbot)
Extinct: mid-1900s
Factors leading to extinction:
suggestions for the extinction
of Lota lota include climate
change, overfishing, pollution
and habitat destruction
 
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Flies: 43 species of fly have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 10 of which are shown below.
Belida angelicae
© Håkon Haraldseide
Species: Belida angelicae
Extinct: 1936
Clitellaria ephippium
© Hectonichus
Species: Clitellaria ephippium
Extinct: 1850
Crossopalpus setiger
© Marko Mutanen
Species: Crossopalpus setiger
Extinct: 1912
Dasypogon diadema
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Dasypogon diadema
Extinct: 1947
Hypoderma bovis
© Shaun Winterton
Species: Hypoderma bovis
Extinct: 2000
Laphria gilva
© Will Chatfield-Taylor
Species: Laphria gilva
Extinct: 1951
Neoitamus cothurnatus
© Tobias Frömel
Species: Neoitamus cothurnatus
Extinct: 1921
Ochlerotatus communis
© Charley Eiseman
Species: Ochlerotatus communis
Extinct: 1922
Peleteria rubescens
© Pietro Niolu
Species: Peleteria rubescens
Extinct: 1931
Phaonia scutellata
© James Lindsey
Species: Phaonia scutellata
Extinct: 1898
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Fungi: 70 species of fungus have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 20 of which are shown below. Fungi are threatened by habitat loss and pollution.
Clavariadelphus ligula
© Urmas Ojango
Species: Clavariadelphus ligula
Extinct: 1953
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss
Clavicorona pyxidata
© Daniel Jimenez
Species: Clavicorona pyxidata (Candelabra coral)
Extinct: 1920
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and degradation
Cortinarius cumatilis
© Franck Mangin
Species: Cortinarius cumatilis
Extinct: 1868
Cribraria atrofusca
© The Eumycetozoan Project, 2006
Species: Cribraria atrofusca
Diderma cingulatum
© The Eumycetozoan Project, 2006
Species: Diderma cingulatum Gomphus clavatus
© Jim Parsons
Species: Gomphus clavatus (Pig’s ear)
Extinct: 1927
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and degradation
Gyromitra gigas
© Jennifer Forman Orth
Species: Gyromitra gigas
Extinct: 1916
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and pollution
Hygrophorus erubescens
© Amadej Trnkoczy
Species: Hygrophorus erubescens (Blotched woodwax)
Extinct: 1877
Hygrophorus russula
© Alberto Flores Alguacil
Species: Hygrophorus russula (Pinkmottle woodwax)
Extinct: 1903
Leptoporus mollis
© Petri Roponen
Species: Leptoporus mollis
Extinct: 1957
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and poor land management
Lycoperdon decipiens
© Irene Andersson
Species: Lycoperdon decipiens (Steppe puffball)
Extinct: 1923
Mycocalia duriaeana
© JJ Wuilbaut
Species: Mycocalia duriaeana (Dune cannon)
Extinct: 1953
Panellus ringens
© Jonathan M
Species: Panellus ringens
Extinct: 1887
Perenniporia medulla-panis
© K. Günter Sturm
Species: Perenniporia medulla-panis
Extinct: 1854
Pithya vulgaris
© Jan Lyngby
Species: Pithya vulgaris
Extinct: 1888
Factors leading to extinction: Poor land management
Puccinia asparagi
© Petr Kokeš
Species: Puccinia asparagi (Asparagus rust)
Extinct: 1936
Puccinia bulbocastani
© Petr Kokeš
Species: Puccinia bulbocastani (Great pignut rust)
Extinct: 1956
Pycnoporus cinnabarinus
© Petri Roponen
Species: Pycnoporus cinnabarinus
Extinct: 1913
Schizonella melanogramma
© Petr Kokeš
Species: Schizonella melanogramma
Extinct: 1951
Tricholoma aurantium
© Franck Mangin
Species: Tricholoma aurantium (Orange knight)
Extinct: 1957
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Heteropteran bugs: Seven species of heteropteran bug have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, six of which are shown below. Heteropteran bugs are threatened by habitat loss.
Chlorochroa juniperina
© Erland Refling Nielsen
Species: Chlorochroa juniperina
Extinct: 1925
Factors leading to extinction: Decline of juniper, its host.
Elasmucha ferrugata
© Arto Muinonen
Species: Elasmucha ferrugata
Extinct: 1950
Eurygaster austriaca
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Eurygaster austriaca
Extinct: 1885
Hadrodemus m-flavum
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Hadrodemus m-flavum
Extinct: 1800s
Jalla dumosa
© Ondřej Zicha
Species: Jalla dumosa
Extinct: 1800s
Prostemma guttula
© Boris Loboda
Species: Prostemma guttula
Extinct: 1890
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Lichens: 13 species of lichen have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, six of which are shown below. Lichens are threatened by habitat loss and human disturbance.
Arthothelium spectabile
© Ed Uebel
Species: Arthothelium spectabile
Extinct: 1937
Biatora cuprea
© Einar Timdal
Species: Biatora cuprea
Extinct: 1975
Brigantiaea fuscolutea
© Einar Timdal
Species: Brigantiaea fuscolutea
Extinct: 1960
Bryoria nadvornikiana
© Ed Uebel
Species: Bryoria nadvornikiana
Extinct: 1995
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution
Chaenothecopsis debilis
© Helge Gundersen
Species: Chaenothecopsis debilis
Extinct: 1846
Cladonia peziziformis
© William Tanneberger
Species: Cladonia peziziformis
Extinct: 1968
Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance, inappropriate use of burning for land management, the natural succession of heathland vegetation and high grazing levels.
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Liverworts: Four species of liverwort have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, one of which is shown below. Liverworts are threatened by habitat loss and modification.
Diplophyllum taxifolium
© Hermann Schachner
Species: Diplophyllum taxifolium
Extinct: 1950s
   
Mammals: Three species of mammal have become extinct in England in the last 200 years.
Eubalaena glacialis
© Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission/NOAA Fisheries Research Permit
Species: Eubalaena glacialis (Northern right whale)
Extinct: mid 1800s
Factors leading to extinction: A decline in its food source
Felis silvestris
© Paul Lathbury
Species: Felis silvestris (Wildcat)
Extinct: late 1800s (currently at brink of extinction in Scotland)
Factors leading to extinction: Hunting and habitat loss
Myotis myotis
© Margarida Augusto
Species: Myotis myotis (Greater mouse-eared bat)
Extinct: 1985
Factors leading to extinction: Unknown, although there are no records of this species until the 1950s so it could have been a failed colonisation
   
Mayflies: Two species of mayfly have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, one of which is shown below. Mayflies are threatened by pollution and habitat change.
Arthroplea congener
© Urmas Kruus
Species: Arthroplea congener
Extinct: 1920
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution
   
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Mosses: 30 species of moss have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 18 of which are shown below. Mosses are threatened by habitat loss and modification.
Aulacomnium turgidum
© Dick Haaksma
Species: Aulacomnium turgidum (Swollen thread-moss)
Extinct: 1878
Factors leading to extinction: Human disturbance including livestock grazing
Bartramia stricta
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Bartramia stricta (Upright apple-moss)
Extinct: 1864
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss, scrub encroachment and collecting
Bryum calophyllum
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Bryum calophyllum (Matted bryum)
Extinct: 1983
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and poor land management
bryum turbinatum
© Kristian Peters
Species: Bryum turbinatum
Extinct: 1940s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss as a result of coastal development
Conostomum tetragonum
© Des Callaghan
Species: Conostomum tetragonum (Helmet-moss)
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution
Cynodontium polycarpum
© Michael Lueth
Species: Cynodontium polycarpum
Extinct: 1960s
Dicranum elongatum
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Dicranum elongatum (Dense fork-moss)
Extinct: late 1800s
Gyroweisia reflexa
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Gyroweisia reflexa
Extinct: 1938
Factors leading to extinction: Development
Helodium blandowii
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Helodium blandowii
Extinct: 1901
Factors leading to extinction: Land drainage
Herzogiella striatella
© Michael Lueth
Species: Herzogiella striatella (Muhlenbeck’s feather-moss)
Extinct: 1950s
Kiaeria falcata
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Kiaeria falcata (Sickle-leaved fork-moss)
Extinct: 1950s
Paludella squarrosa
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Paludella squarrosa
Extinct: 1916
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat destroyed by humans
Philonotis tomentella
© Michael Lueth
Species: Philonotis tomentella
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and pollution
Pohlia proligera
© Michael Lueth
Species: Pohlia proligera
Extinct: 1950s
Pterygoneurum lamellatum
© Dick Haaksma
Species: Pterygoneurum lamellatum
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and scrub encroachment
Sphagnum obtusum
© Dick Haaksma
Species: Sphagnum obtusum
Extinct: 1911
Factors leading to extinction: Bog drainage
Sphagnum strictum
© Jan-Peter Frahm
Species: Sphagnum strictum (Pale bog-moss)
Extinct: 1950s
Tetrodontium repandum
© Michael Lueth
Species: Tetrodontium repandum (Small four-tooth moss)
Extinct: 1958
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Moths: 62 species of moth have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 25 of which are shown below. Moths are threatened by habitat loss and degradation.
Arctornis l-nigrum
© Graham Wenman
Species: Arctornis l-nigrum (Black V moth)
Extinct: 1960
Borkhausenia minutella
© Graham Wenman
Species: Borkhausenia minutella
Extinct: 1931
Colobochyla salicalis
© Graham Wenman
Species: Colobochyla salicalis (Lesser belle)
Extinct: 1977
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat degradation
Costaconvexa polygrammata
© Nick Montegriffo
Species: Costaconvexa polygrammata (The many lined)
Extinct: 1850s
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss
Cucullia naphalii
© Graham Wenman
Species: Cucullia naphalii (The cudweed)
Extinct: 1979
Depressaria depressana
© Graham Wenman
Species: Depressaria depressana
Extinct: pre-1900
Factors leading to extinction: Could be related to climatic changes
Dichomeris derasella
© Natalija Pisec
Species: Dichomeris derasella
Extinct: 1933
Emmelia trabealis
© Graham Wenman
Species: Emmelia trabealis (Spotted sulphur)
Extinct: 1960
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and agricultural intensification
Epicallima formosella
© Graham Wenman
Species: Epicallima formosella
Extinct: 1840s
Hyboma strigosa
© Graham Wenman
Species: Hyboma strigosa (Marsh dagger)
Extinct: 1933
Hypercallia citrinalis
© Kevin Hannan
Species: Hypercallia citrinalis
Extinct: 1979
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss
Jodia croceago
© Mª Africa
Species: Jodia croceago (Orange upperwing)
Extinct: 1983
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and degradation
Leucodonta bicoloria
© yyzz2@Hokkaido_Japan
Species: Leucodonta bicoloria (White prominent)
Extinct: 1880
Lithophane furcifera
© Graham Wenman
Species: Lithophane furcifera (The Conformist)
Extinct: 1907
Lymantria dispar
© Henk Wallays
Species: Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth)
Extinct: 1907
Factors leading to extinction: This species is regarded as a pest to trees and shrubs and was therefore purposefully eradicated.
Lyonetia prunifoliella
© Ian Kimber
Species: Lyonetia prunifoliella
Extinct: 1900
Minucia lunaris
© Carol Strafford
Species: Minucia lunaris (Lunar double-stripe)
Extinct: 1958
Nola aerugula
© yyzz2@Hokkaido_Japan
Species: Nola aerugula (Scarce black arches)
Extinct: 1890
Nothris verbascella
© Graham Wenman
Species: Nothris verbascella
Extinct: 1971
Factors leading to extinction: The larva of this moth feed on hoary mullein. This plant is now very rare and this probably contributed to the moth's decline.
Oxyptilus pilosellae
© Andrzej Staśkowiak
Species: Oxyptilus pilosellae
Extinct: 1964
Pachetra sagittigera
© Ferran Turmo Gort
Species: Pachetra sagittigera (Feathered ear)
Extinct: 1963
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss
Paranthrene tabaniformis
© Graham Wenman
Species: Paranthrene tabaniformis (Dusky clearwing)
Extinct: 1924
Pyrausta sanguinalis
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Pyrausta sanguinalis (Scarce crimson and gold)
Extinct: 1935
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss and damage
Scopula immorata
© Lothar Monshausen
Species: Scopula immorata (Lewes wave)
Extinct: 1958
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat change
Trachea atriplicis
© Anne Sorbes
Species: Trachea atriplicis (Orache)
Extinct: 1905
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage of fens
   
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Sawflies: Six species of sawfly have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, five of which are shown below.
Cimbex quadrimaculatus
© Ferran Turmo Gort
Species: Cimbex quadrimaculatus
Extinct: 1800s
Corynis crassicornis
© Libor Hudík
Species: Corynis crassicornis
Extinct: early 1800s
Corynis obscura
© Libor Hudík
Species: Corynis obscura
Extinct: early 1800s
Megalodontes cephalotes
© Cor Zonneveld
Species: Megalodontes cephalotes
Extinct: early 1800s
Strongylogaster filicis
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Strongylogaster filicis
Extinct: 1873
   
Shrimps: Two species of shrimp have gone extinct in England in the last 200 years.
Artemia salina
© Xavier Patinyo i Vidal Patinyo
Species: Artemia salina (Brine shrimp)
Extinct: 1907
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat loss
Mysis relicta
© Jaap Cost Budde
Species: Mysis relicta
Extinct: 1952/1953
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Snails: Two species of snail have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, one of which is shown below.
Fruticicola fruticum
© Michael Becker
Species: Fruticicola fruticum
Extinct: c1950
   
Spiders: Four species of spider have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, three of which are shown below. Spiders are threatened by habitat modification.
Gibbaranea bituberculata
© Ferran Turmo Gort
Species: Gibbaranea bituberculata
Extinct: 1954
Factors leading to extinction: The vegetation at the last remaining site was mown to the ground in 1954.
Hypsosinga heri
© Jaume Bobet
Species: Hypsosinga heri
Extinct: 1912
Factors leading to extinction: Land drainage
Mastigusa arietina
© Frits Broekhuis
Species: Mastigusa arietina
Extinct:
1926
Factors leading to extinction: Loss of over-mature trees.
   
Stoneworts: Four species of stonewort have become extinct in England over the last 200 years, two of which are shown below. Stoneworts are threatened by pollution, habitat loss and poor land and water management.
Nitella gracilis
© Aurélie Rey-Boissezon
Species: Nitella gracilis (Slender stonewort)
Extinct: 1914
Factors leading to extinction: Pollution
Tolypella nidifica
© Dirk Schories
Species: Tolypella nidifica (Bird’s nest stonewort)
Extinct: 1956
Factors leading to extinction: Decline in water quality
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Vascular plants: 24 species of vascular plant have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, 18 of which are shown below. Vascular plants are threatened by habitat loss and destruction, drainage, the use of fertilisers and herbicides, eutrophication, overgrazing and overcollecting.
Ajuga genevensis
© Dave Riseborough
Species: Ajuga genevensis (Blue bugle)
Extinct: 1967
Arnoseris minima
© A.S. Kers
Species: Arnoseris minima (Lamb's succory)
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Increased use of fertilisers and herbicides
Bromus interruptus
© Plantsurfer
Species: Bromus interruptus (Interrupted brome)
Extinct: 1970
Factors leading to extinction: Modern agricultural techniques
Carex davalliana
© Serge Aubert
Species: Carex davalliana (Davall’s sedge)
Extinct: 1831
Factors leading to extinction: This species was found at only one site which was drained and developed
Carex trinervis
© A.S. Kers
Species: Carex trinervis (Three-nerved sedge)
Extinct: 1869
Caucalis platycarpos
© Svein Erik Larsen
Species: Caucalis platycarpos (Small bur parsley)
Factors leading to extinction: Modern agricultural techniques
Centaurium scilloides
© Peter Greenwood
Species: Centaurium scilloides (Perennial centaury)
Extinct: c1967
Factors leading to extinction: A reduction in grazing and the growth of scrub
Cystopteris alpina
© Hermann Schachner
Species: Cystopteris alpina (Alpine bladder-fern)
Extinct: 1911
Cystopteris Montana
© Peter Greenwood
Species: Cystopteris Montana (Mountain bladder-fern)
Extinct: 1880
Factors leading to extinction: Grazing and overcollecting
Euphorbia peplis
© Sarah Gregg
Species: Euphorbia peplis (Purple spurge)
Extinct: 1951
Factors leading to extinction: Winter storm damage
euphorbia villosa
© Stefan Lefnaer
Species: Euphorbia villosa (Hairy spurge)
Extinct: 1924
Najas flexilis
© Per Aasen
Species: Najas flexilis (Slender naiad)
Extinct: 1982
Factors leading to extinction: Eutrophication
Otanthus maritimus
© Sarah Gregg
Species: Otanthus maritimus (Cottonweed)
Extinct: 1936
Polygonatum verticillatum
© Per Aasen
Species: Polygonatum verticillatum (Whorled Solomon’s–seal)
Extinct: 1866
Factors leading to extinction: Habitat destruction and erosion
Saxifraga rosacea
© Katsuji Ohkouchi
Species: Saxifraga rosacea (Irish saxifrage)
Extinct: 1960
Factors leading to extinction: Overgrazing and pollution
Scheuchzeria palustris
© Corey Raimond
Species: Scheuchzeria palustris (Rannoch rush)
Extinct: c1900
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage and eutrophication
Spiranthes aestivalis
© Emilio Esteban-Infantes
Species: Spiranthes aestivalis (Summer lady’s-tresses)
Extinct: 1950s
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage and overcollecting
Spiranthes romanzoffiana
© Per Verdonk
Species: Spiranthes romanzoffiana (Irish lady’s-tresses)
Extinct: 1990s
Factors leading to extinction: Drainage and reclamation
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Wasps: Ten species of wasp have become extinct in England in the last 200 years, nine of which are shown below.
Arachnospila rufa
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Arachnospila rufa
Extinct: 1938
Dinetus pictus
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Dinetus pictus
Extinct: 1880
Hedychrum rutlians
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Hedychrum rutilans
Extinct: 1899
Lestica clypeata
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Lestica clypeata
Extinct: 1853
Mellinus crabroneus
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Mellinus crabroneus
Extinct: 1952
Odynerus reniformis
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Odynerus reniformis
Extinct: 1922
Priocnemis propinqua
© Isidro Martínez
Species: Priocnemis propinqua
Extinct: 1899
Psen ater
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Psen ater
Extinct: 1850
Tachysphex obscuripennis
© Stefan Schmidt
Species: Tachysphex obscuripennis
Extinct: 1882
   
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